Most Common Pediatric Orthopaedic Problems

Pediatric Orthopaedic


The specialty that focuses on the treatment of bone defects and diseases (acquired or genetic-related) that occur during gestation is called pediatric orthopaedics.

Musculoskeletal and developmental disorders can also benefit from the expertise of a trusted pediatric orthopaedics specialist.

Likewise, children born with any congenital bone diseases can also use the help of a pediatric orthopaedics expert.

While certain conditions get corrected even without treatment, other cases will end up becoming more severe when left unattended.

Enumerated below are some of the most common conditions pediatric orthpaedics experts encounter:


  • Genuvarum (bow-legged) – this condition is often attributed to a posterior hip capsule that is tightened. Osteotomy is often performed if the condition is not resolved even after the child turned 2 years of age.
  • Genu valgum (knock-kneed) – often benign, this condition is often resolved when the child is 8 years old. However, if the condition lingers until the child is 10 years of age, surgery might be required.
  • Internal tibialtorion – while considered the most common cause of in-toeing in children 2 years old (and below), the condition often gets resolved once the child starts to walk.
  • Internal femoral torsion – in-toeing in children that are 2 years old and above is often attributed to this condition. Fortunately, once an abnormal sitting position gets corrected, the condition will be resolved even without treatment.


  • Septic arthritis –this condition is caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Treatment approaches include emergency aspiration, arthroscopy, and drainage and debridement (with antibiotic cover).
  • Transient monoarticular synovitis – known as one of the most common causes of limping, the condition often develops after a respiratory infection. Likely treatment options can include physiotherapy, rest, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
  • Developmental dysplasia – this spectrum of disorders will often affect the acetabulum, proximal femur, and the hips. Early treatment and detection has been known to prevent long-term morbidity.
  • Perthes’ disease – this condition is characterized by the femoral head’s idiopathic avascular necrosis. Typical treatment interventions can include bed rest, analgesic, and bracing.


  • Polydactyly –while the condition’s severity can vary from one child to another, the condition is deemed one of the most common. Severity of the condition can range from minor soft tissue duplication to serious skeletal abnormalities. Surgical removal is considered the best treatment approach for polydactyly.
  • Curly toes – this condition often affects the fifth and the fourth toes. In most cases, the condition does not exhibit any symptoms. It is also considered inherited. In at least 25 to 50 percent of the cases, the condition gets resolved by the time the child is 3 to 4 years of age. Otherwise, surgery will be recommended.
  • Hammer toe – in most cases, the condition affects the second toe. While surgery is not often necessary, it is recommended when the condition becomes painful.
  • Ingrowing toenail – when the edge of the nail grows into the surrounding soft tissue, an ingrown toenail develops. Treatment management can range from conservative alternatives (warm soaks and antibiotics) to surgery


Tibialapophysitis (Osgood-Schlatter disease) –this condition will often respond to non-invasive treatment options like orthotics, physical treatment, bracing, and activity modification.

Poplitel cyst (Baker’s cyst) –just like tibialapophysitis, this condition will also often get better using conservative treatment approaches. However, in the presence of underlying internal derangement, arthroscopy will be recommended.

Discoid lateral meniscus – this condition is considered a congenital malformation. Once it turns troublesome, arthroscopic repair will be required.

Patellar subluxation and dislocation – this condition is classified as a congenital disorder and responds best to immobilization. However, in chronic cases, surgery is considered the best course of treatment.

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